• Part 5: Part 5: Interpretation

    • Article 45 - Intention of the parties

      (1) A contract shall be interpreted according to the common intention of the parties.
      (2) If such an intention cannot be established, the contract shall be interpreted according to the meaning that reasonable Persons of the same kind as the parties would give to it in the same circumstances.

    • Article 46 - Interpretation of statements and other conduct

      (1) The statements and other conduct of a party shall be interpreted according to that party's intention if the other party knew or could not have been unaware of that intention.
      (2) If the preceding paragraph is not applicable, such statements and other conduct shall be interpreted according to the meaning that a reasonable Person of the same kind as the other party would give to it in the same circumstances.

    • Article 47 - Relevant circumstances

      In applying Article 45 and Article 46, regard shall be had to all the circumstances, including:

      (1) preliminary negotiations between the parties;
      (2) practices which the parties have established between themselves;
      (3) the conduct of the parties subsequent to the conclusion of the contract;
      (4) the nature and purpose of the contract;
      (5) the meaning commonly given to terms and expressions in the trade concerned; and
      (6) usage.

    • Article 48 - Reference to contract or statement as a whole

      Terms and expressions shall be interpreted in the light of the whole contract or statement in which they appear.

    • Article 49 - All terms to be given effect

      Contract terms shall be interpreted so as to give effect to all the terms rather than to deprive some of them of effect.

    • Article 50 - Contra proferentem rule

      If contract terms supplied by one party are unclear, an interpretation against that party is preferred.

    • Article 51 - Linguistic discrepancies

      Where a contract is drawn up in two or more language versions which are equally authoritative there is, in case of discrepancy between the versions, a preference for the interpretation according to a version in which the contract was originally drawn up.